- Mikveh in Besalú, Spain from 1264
"KUANDO SE ESKURESE ES PARA AMASSER"
“WHEN IT’S DARK OUT, THAT’S BECAUSE DAWN IS COMING"
- LADINO PROVERB
Prior to 2015 Spain had passed laws that laid a pathway for people of Sephardic descent to reclaim Spanish citizenship (Carta de Naturaleza). In 2015 both Portugal and Spain passed laws allowing practicing Sephardic Jews and those of Sephardic descent to apply for Citizenship. For Spain it was an attempt to streamline to process of the previous laws. Both countries are attempting to atone for the atrocities that were systematically carried out against the Sephardic community starting with the Spanish Edict of Expulsion in 1492 and shortly thereafter the Portuguese Edict in 1496. Eviction from their country was just the start. For hundreds of years The Inquisition relentlessly pursued suspected Judaizers all across the globe. Once caught all of their possession were confiscated, they were imprisoned, tortured, and burned alive. The Inquisition wasn’t officially outlawed in Portugal until 1821. Spain lagged behind and finally ended the brutal institution in 1834.
Curious about Sephardi culture and history?
Here are the best of the best that I have come across.
My Jewish Learning - Introduction to all thing Jewish
Diarna (דיארנא ديارنا “Our homes” in Judeo-Arabic): The Geo-Museum of Sephardi and Mizrahi sites.
Jewish Virtual Library - is the most comprehensive online encyclopedia of Jewish history, politics and culture.
The Ladino Project - Ladino music
Stroum Center for Jewish Studies - University of Washington is a world-renowned program for the study, teaching, and perpetuation of Sephardic culture and the Ladino language
The Center for Sefardi and Anousim Studies - Netanya Academic College